xiagang


xiagang
(laid off)
Social concept
This neologism literally translates as ‘off the post’, which means ‘laid off’. It is a euphemism for urban unemployment (shiye). The concept used to be that unemployment was a feature of capitalism and was non-existent under socialism. Therefore, a neologism daiye (waiting for a job) was coined in the late 1970s. Since 1994, the concept has been changed, but there is still a difference between being ‘laid off’ and unemployment. ‘Laid-off’ workers still retain their relationship with their state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and receive a minimum subsidy for two years.
The government, however, does not count them in the unemployment statistics for two years, not to mention the hundreds of millions of unemployed rural Chinese. According to Cai Rifang’s Green Paper on Population and Labour (Laodongyü renkou lupishu, 2002), published by the Academy of Social Sciences Archive Press, the actual unemployment rate in urban areas already had reached the 7 per cent warning line (at which social unrest is considered probable), much higher than the 4.5 per cent that the government hoped to have achieved by 2002. In 2001, in fact, the government only admitted to an unemployment rate of 3.6 per cent. With the dissolution of most SOEs, tens of millions of more workers, especially women, have been and are being victimized. WTO membership may force farmers to join the already large ‘floating population’, who now compete with the urban poor for limited jobs. Some ‘laid-off’ workers have or will xiahai (go entrepreneurial), but most of them are unskilled, and unreported protests occur often. The state is now trying to address the status of ‘laid-off’ workers and establish sound social security measures.
Chan, Anita (2001). China’s Workers Under Assault: The Exploitation of Labor in a Globalizing Economy. New York: M.E.Sharpe.
HELEN XIAOYAN WU

Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese culture. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Xiagang — Original name in latin Xiagang Name in other language Hsia chiang, Hsia chiang chen, Hsia kang, Xiagang, Xiagang Zhen, xia gang, xia gang zhen State code CN Continent/City Asia/Shanghai longitude 31.89667 latitude 120.21 altitude 4 Population 0… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Siming District — Infobox Settlement name =Siming District official name = other name = native name = nickname = settlement type =District total type = motto = translit lang1=Chinese translit lang1 type=Characters translit lang1 info=思明区 translit lang1… …   Wikipedia

  • women (the condition of) — Socially, the PRC government has promulgated a series of statutes to promote women’s status and gender equality. The Marriage Law of 1950 backed by Mao prohibited arranged marriages, concubinage, foot binding and child marriages. The Marriage Law …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • Jiangyin — (江陰市 / 江阴市) ist eine kreisfreie Stadt am südlichen Ufer des Jangtsekiangs und nördlich des Tai Sees. Sie gehört zum Verwaltungsgebiet der bezirksfreien Stadt Wuxi, liegt im Südosten der Provinz Jiangsu in China, im Herzen des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Luogang — Lage des Stadtbezirks Luogang innerhalb der Stadt Guangzhou Der Stadtbezirk Luogang (萝岗区) ist ein Stadtbezirk der chinesischen Stadt Guangzhou in der Provinz Guangdong. Er hat eine Fläche von 389,06 km² und etwa 141.200 Einwohner (2005).… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • welfare and poverty relief — In China, welfare or fuli evokes a rich connotation of meanings and perceptions. In the broad sense, welfare refers to benefits and entitlements associated with employment, and in particular the collective amenities provided at the workplace for… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.